Cynthia Levinsonenjoyed a twenty-five year career in various corners of the educational system, helping make schools, classrooms, and policies better for kids. She's also written extensively for children's magazines like Odyssey, Faces, Dig, Cobblestone, Highlights, Stepping Stones, and others. Her evolution into the role of book author seems a natural progression.
Last week, I posted a review of Cynthia's powerful middle grade nonfiction book, WE'VE GOT A JOB: THE 1963 BIRMINGHAM CHILDREN'S MARCH (Peachtree, February 2012.) The book hasn't officially released yet, but it has already garnered starred reviews by Kirkus, Publisher's Weekly, and Booklist, and is racking up similarly glowing reviews from School Library Journal and others.
Cynthia very kindly agreed to a Q and A interview for me. So, let's dive right in to hear the story behind the story.
What inspired you to write about the 1963 Birmingham Children's March?
In May 1963, I was a high school senior in Columbus, Ohio—just a little older than and half a world away from three of the four “main characters” I interviewed extensively for the book. We had a “colored” maid, who lived on her side of town. But, other than Betty, I didn’t know any black people—which is why I grew up only half a world, not a whole world away from Birmingham.
My father loved talking about history and politics at the dinner table. So, I knew that people in the South were protesting segregation and that some of them were being assaulted by dogs and water canons. What I didn’t know was that those people were children. And I continued to be oblivious of this crucial fact, even though I later taught American History in middle school and high school. The moment that I made that belated discovery, while researching an article on music in the civil rights era for Cobblestone magazine, I knew I had to write a book.
From initial idea to completed book, what was your journey to publication?
With sharp twists and turns, long slogs up steep slopes, and precipitous drops into ravines, the journey was definitely queasy-making. After spending three months reading everything I could find on the Children’s March and on civil rights in Alabama, I developed a proposal. Chris Barton generously looked at it and, even more generously, shared it with his agent, Erin Murphy, who signed me! That was the first peak. The next one—making a sale—took another 18 months and entailed 18 or 20 rejections. (It’s still too depressing to count them all. As I recall, one publisher rejected it twice.)
Once we found an interested—actually, very enthusiastic—publisher, two others quickly followed. And the book went to auction! The offers were wonderful in different ways, and it was a deliciously hard decision. But, after choosing Peachtree, I’ve never looked back, especially when I see the terrific book (shameless self-promotion) that my editor, Kathy Landwehr, helped me produce. I, literally, could not have done it without her.
Of the four thousand young people involved in the historic march, why did you choose Audrey Hendricks, Washington Booker, III, James Stewart, and Arnetta Streeter as your point of view characters?
First of all, they’re wonderful, candid people who want young people to know the story of the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham, especially what young people can accomplish. (I use the present tense here, though, sadly, Audrey died two years ago.) Also, because of their different backgrounds and involvement in the movement, each of them provides a window into black life, politics, and history there. The situation was complex and nuanced, and they offer personal ways to convey essential information. As well, every reader has someone to identify with. Maybe most importantly, Audrey, James, Arnetta, and Wash were willing to let me interview them for hours at a time over several years. I pursued one other person, who was ambivalent about participating but had great stories to share, for almost a year. In the end, she needed to retain her privacy, for understandable reasons.
You've done a remarkable job of weaving in direct quotes and photos, while laying a contextual foundation about the political environment of the time as well as the ever-evolving Civil Rights Movement. What kinds of research was involved?
As I mentioned, I started by reading. Fortunately, much has been written about the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham. The events there were so melodramatic—beatings, hoses, dogs, jails. I started with two hefty Pulitzer-prize-winning tomes and, then, went on to other prize-worthy texts, including children’s books (though, at the time, nothing was available for kids on the Children’s March). I read solidly for three months.
At about that time, I discovered the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute (BCRI), which has an excellent website, and, even better for my purposes, video interviews with hundreds of civil rights activists. I watched snippets of these interviews online and read many dozens of transcripts.
Finally, I was ready for my first trip to Birmingham. In addition to spending days in the BCRI and Birmingham Public Library archives, I wanted to meet the people I had been reading about. But, as a new writer, with only magazine articles to my name, I wondered if busy, professional people would be willing to meet with me to talk about events of 45 years ago. Many did! I interviewed not only black people who had marched in 1963 but also white people, including a policeman, about their perspectives. This trip convinced me that onsite research is invaluable, and I ended up taking two more trips to Birmingham—one for the 45th anniversary of the March and another with my editor.
Then, while writing the book, I listened to spirituals, gospel music, civil rights songs, sermons, mass meetings. Hearing the voices of the times and the place lent a tone to the text and inspired me to keep writing.
What were the most difficult aspects of writing the book?
There were two main problems I had to grapple with. Above all, everyone knows the outcome. How do you keep readers engaged when they already know what happened? One solution, I discovered, is that, while readers know the end result, they don’t know the steps that led to it. So, including the daily details, just as the four marchers experienced them, maintains the suspense.
Some of these details, however, were arcane. In the midst of the marches, Birmingham was holding mayoral and city council elections. Figuring out how to convey the importance of municipal politics, of all things, without losing readers was tricky. Perhaps some of your readers will tell me how well I succeeded.
Is there anything else you'd like to share? Perhaps an anecdote or some such that didn't make it into the book?
There is a funny story that didn’t fit in the final book. One of the inmates in James’ cell was a man, wearing a business suit, who got swept up in the mass arrests as he walked to work on Thursday morning, May 2, 1963. Repulsed by the tasteless food, he asked a jailer, “Excuse me, do you think I could have some hot sauce?” Even the jailer laughed. The kids, not knowing his name, called him “Hot Sauce.” They’d say, “Hey, Hot Sauce, see if you can get us scotch and soda.”
What do you hope young readers will take away from WE'VE GOT A JOB: THE 1963 BIRMINGHAM CHILDREN'S MARCH?
I hope for layers of knowledge and understanding, and I hope for action. That is, the story of what children accomplished in Birmingham is not well known. So, first, I want this episode to become as familiar in Civil Rights lore as Rosa Parks and the Freedom Riders. Beyond that, the fight for desegregation was not simply a matter of good guys versus bad guys or blacks versus whites. The story is complicated, and I think it’s important for young people to absorb and appreciate the complexity of society and of change. Finally, I would love to see Peace Ponies sprout around America. (For your blog readers who don’t know what I’m referring to, I urge them to read the book, including the dedication.)
What can we expect to see from you next?
My editor has two picture book manuscripts, one of which focuses on Audrey, that I hope we'll all see some day! And, I’m working on a longer piece that also shows remarkable things that children can do.
In WE'VE GOT A JOB: THE 1963 BIRMINGHAM CHILDREN'S MARCH (Peachtree, February 2012), author Cynthia Levinson has shone a light on a dark, oft-forgotten chapter in the American struggle for civil rights. Impeccable research, including direct quotes from protestors/marchers themselves, has resulted in an expertly crafted, three dimensional true story. More than a must read, this is a potential catalyst to spark a conversation with children and teens about civil rights and humanity.
In 1963, Birmingham, Alabama was the most segregated city in America. Racist white, dictatorial community leaders had twisted into oblivion the U.S. Supreme court ruling that declared segregation of public facilities unconstitutional. Birmingham was a dam of injustice ready to burst.
Levinson introduces the ensuing flood of events through the accounts of four pivotal young protestors, Washington (Wash) Booker, III, James Stewart, Arnetta Streeter, and the youngest marcher, nine year-old Audrey Hendricks.
African American citizens wanted nothing more than to see the end of segregation. Though black participants of the civil rights movement abided by their own "Ten Commandments of Nonviolence," they frequently fell victim to the KKK, bombings in homes and churches, intentional attacks by police dogs, and the full force of fire hoses.
"When video of children being hosed across asphalt and charged by growling dogs appeared on the news that night, America started to pay attention to how Birmingham treated its Negro population. One child was photographed holding up a hand-lettered sign that read, 'We're Human, Too.'"
When negotiation efforts repeatedly failed, organizers like Martin Luther King, Jr, Fred Shuttlesworth, and James Bevel became desperate. It was decided the only way to draw attention to Birmingham's civil rights crisis was to peacefully and intentionally get arrested. The crusade was informally dubbed "Project Confrontation or Project C."
"Project C would pit blacks against whites in nonviolent ways by sitting at segregated lunch counters, parks, city hall. They picketed businesses and let Birmingham know that they would no longer 'endure the laws and custom of segregation, brutal treatment by the police and injustice of the courts...' They were willing to fill up the jails."
But, when the adults had to return to work to earn a living, four thousand young people eagerly rose to the challenge. They came in droves, in peaceful protest, until the city, county, and surrounding county jails were beyond capacity.
"Since the beginning of Project C, less than five weeks earlier, a reported 2,425 people, almost all of them students, had been arrested. The jails and fairgrounds were filled to bursting. Downtown businesses were empty. The whole world was watching."
The world continued to watch until change finally came to Birmingham. "Sobered. Angry. Determined. This is the way many people of Birmingham, the country and the White House felt in September 1963. Sobered by racism. Angry about violence. Determined to gain civil rights."
Archival photographs, informational sidebars, a timeline of Birmingham's segregation challenges, and a map of the city are included as a supplemental bonus.
The events in WE'VE GOT A JOB pre-date my generation yet I'm left wondering why I've never heard of Children's March. How could I not have known about the brave young people who, despite unimaginable adversity, shifted the balance of the civil rights movement? Children! The story, as in the era, is about cruelty, injustice, bravery, determination. It's a story about humanity that is woven into our collective history. As they say, if we do not know where we come from, how can we know where we are going?
Though Levinson herself was an Ohio teenager during tenuous 1963, and remembers reading about the marches and the treatment of protestors in her youth, it wasn't until she was researching civil rights music for Cobblestone magazine that she learned the role of children in the Birmingham crusade. In Levinson's words, "Many people, I realized, needed to know how a Children's March changed American history. So, I set out to learn what happened."
I, for one, am very glad she did.
Stay tuned for my interview with author Cynthia Levinson.
There it is in all its blank glory. The only gift I asked Santa for. Well, that and a new car. Santa's budget clearly looks alot like mine.
There's something exciting, and invigorating, and, yes, a bit scary about having a stack of giant blank pages in front of me, ready for scribbles, and plots, and voices, and magic to spill forth like seeds in a garden. It's bound to get messy, dirty, downright muddy at times. But, for 2012, my muse resolves to reveal white space as opportunity. I'm confident that, if I tend to the words every day, something marvelous will blossom.
My Herb Garden Fairy by Mark Roberts
And, speaking of my muse, my sweet hubby surprised me with this Herb Fairy on Christmas day. We had recently spotted this little guy in a designer store and I was immediately smitten. He's sparkly, whimsical, and cheery. But, don't let his fairiness fool you. His eyes watch me with expectation. Though I'm not a "stuff" kind of gal, this cutie pie was destined for my desk.
I know the obvious name for the little guy would be Herb, but I don't know if that fits him. What do you think? Any other ideas?
Happy 2012 to you all. May your own blank pages be filled with life, joy, and art.